November 10, 2009
Thank you for this opportunity to comment on updating the IACC Strategic Plan. I am representing the Autistic Self Advocacy Network.
My comments on October 23 focused on ethical issues, concerns about the appropriateness of early intervention and associated research, permissions for acquisition of biological materials, and the IACC’s recommended budget being skewed severely in favor of research into “causes and prevention” rather than practical and appropriate interventions, such as improvements in educational interventions, services and supports.
I have had an opportunity, through the IACC Scientific Workshop Panel process, to make some language changes and suggestions that should apply throughout the Strategic Plan. Since I was on Panel 1, “When Should I Be Concerned?” I will use that section of the 2009 Strategic Plan as an example of changes ASAN would like to see incorporated throughout the entire 2010 Plan:
Many of these changes reflect either more accurate and useful terminology or more respectful language that does not introduce an undertone of disrespect, fatalism, or excess pathologizing of autism.
Anywhere the term “high risk” is used to characterize the likelihood of siblings also being on the autism spectrum, the language should be changed to just that: “high likelihood” rather than “high risk.”
“Abnormal” should be changed to “atypical,” as we have done for the Panel 1 final document.
Anywhere interventions are mentioned, the use of the qualifier “appropriate” should be inserted, addressing our community’s concerns about “intervention for the sake of intervention,” and especially in the light of the obvious disregard of and dismissal of autistic input into the research process to date.
Rather than “early warning signs,” we strongly suggest “early indicators,” which is more scientifically accurate and does not introduce negative value judgments into identifying indicators of autism or atypical development.
Instead of “symptoms,” “characteristics” and “conditions” are more appropriate, since autism is not a disease process but a neurobiological difference.
The use of the term, and concept of “severity,” is questionable for several reasons. First, “severity” is often contextual, over both time and other things like situation and location. What is being looked at when using the “severity” criterion is how “observable” the autistic characteristic is. Whether or not a characteristic is observable and to what degree does not necessarily correlate with other aspects of the person. Again, the focus needs to be on improving the quality of life and not on reducing autistic traits. For this reason we prefer the term “variability,” which indicates that both abilities and disabilities can be present in the same person, and that abilities and disabilities can change over time, whether permanently, or temporarily, in the presence of other factors, such as external environment. “Variability” refers to variability of autistic traits. Where the concept of “severity” is used it must be tempered with research into autistic strengths and also neutral, but autistic, characteristics.
I have made another language change, from “pathology” to “differences in neurobiology and cognition,” which is more specific and avoids the concept that all autistic differences are pathological. Many of them are not.
I have rewritten the first section of the Strategic Plan, with its three sub-questions, to read:
“When Should I Be Concerned?”
-“What are the Early Indicators of ASD?” (rather than “What are the early warning signs?”)
-“Are there typical characteristics that are part of an ASD diagnosis?” (I left that the same, since you already used “characteristics”, which is the preferred term.)
-How much variation is there in characteristics and pattern of abilities and disabilities (over time and depending on context)?”
In addition, undue focus should not be placed on “losing symptoms” of autism, without qualifying language indicating that the “loss” could be due to learning of skills, and certainly should not indicate, at this early stage in research, that these research subjects have become non-autistic. Especially in the light of reports that many of the subjects still retained co-occurring symptoms often found in autistics, such as OCD, anxiety, ADHD, etc., the public should not be encouraged to think that “loss of autistic symptoms” is “loss of autism.” I have changed the sentence in Panel 1’s draft to: “Finally, evidence is emerging that some children ‘lose’ explicit characteristics of ASD although it is not clear whether that loss of autistic characteristics is permanent throughout the lifespan, or whether it reflects “learning skills” rather than “losing characteristics.”
I have reformulated one of the Research Opportunities to: “Inclusion of bioethical and other ethical considerations into the diagnosis and screening process, including but not limited to consideration of the implications of genetic testing and detection of maternal antibodies. Maternal antibodies is an emerging area of concern for us which is reflected nowhere in the current Plan or suggested revisions.
NIMH and other grant-making institutions should not fund research that uses or promotes the use of restraints, aversives, and seclusion. There is a growing movement in society away from the use of these draconian measures, reflected in current legislative efforts to ban their use. Restraints, aversives and seclusion are used disproportionately against people with disabilities, including autism and other developmental, intellectual, and behavioral disabilities. In no case should researchers applying for grants to study restraints and aversives, either to further their use or to legitimize that use, be allowed access to federal funds, including funds from private/federal partnerships. Research that promotes restraint reduction and elimination should be funded as a high priority in order to keep autistic and people with other disabilities safe.
Research into communication differences must be given higher priority than it was given in the 2009 Strategic Plan. A mere mention of Picture Exchange Communication Systems is not enough, given that PECS does not work for everyone on the spectrum, nor does it address the needs of people who need communications technology and/or systems part-time, as a supplement to speech and/or writing, or the need for systems that are flexible enough to accommodate a wide variety of changing communication needs. It also does not necessarily address the needs of people who use non-language-based communication and/or non-symbol-based systems. Every person communicates in some form, but that communication is often not well-understood, and to this date, has been under researched. To separate autistics into “verbal” and “non-verbal” categories and leave it at that is to miss a critically important area for research, far surpassing in practical importance the finding of yet another “autism gene” or maternal antibody. The need for all autistics to communicate in ways that others can understand is crucial for our empowerment, life chances, access to basic needs, and for the chance to engage in reciprocal communication with people who do not easily access our various ways of communicating. What do autistics want? Ways of communicating that work for us and that allow us to communicate effectively with a wide range of others. What do parents of autistics want? Ways of communicating with us. A glance at comments online and in news media indicate that more parents are interested in being able to communicate with their autistic children (including adult offspring, who are by no means to be written off) than are interested in what gene/s are responsible for autism.
Finally, in order to accomplish the goal of achieving the best possible outcome for all people on the autism spectrum, autistic adults should be consulted and should participate in all levels and tasks of research on autism. Autistic adults with a perspective that focuses away from questionable cures and “elimination” of autism should be given a seat on the Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee. Nothing About Us Without Us.
Paula C. Durbin-Westby
Board of Directors
The Autistic Self Advocacy Network